Wednesday, September 16, 2009

Magnetosphere and Solar Winds

There is a lot of interesting work being done on magnetospheres, solar winds, and solar flares. I am just going to put all the papers I find on this topic here. I will break them up into topics.

Space Mission Analysis and Design Pg 198 Second Edition.
"The Earth's magnetic field is roughly dipolar;",""

Where:
Local Magnetic Field Intensity
Radial Distance in Earth radii
= Magnetic Field intensity at the equator
Magnetic Latitude.


The authors are explicit in saying that this is a basic model and to examine further more complex models.
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Solar Winds:
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Sun Spots:
NSF Special Report
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Solar Flares:
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Solar Magnetosphere:
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Interplanetary Magnetosphere:
Well IBEX is the spacecraft that could. These people did some great work. All hail IBEX. They have published their data publicly. I will put links to their data.

"The Sun moves through the local interstellar medium,
continuously emitting ionized, supersonic solar wind
plasma and carving out a cavity in interstellar space,
called the heliosphere." IBEX
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Mercury's Magnetosphere:
MERCURY: MAGNETIC FIELD AND MAGNETOSPHERE


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Venus' Magnetosphere:
VENUS: MAGNETIC FIELD AND MAGNETOSPHERE


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Earth's Magnetosphere:

Extended Michelson-Morley Interferometer experiment. English version. I think this is the Zeeman effect. The vertical shows the dynamic changes in the Earth's magnetic field.
This is interesting. I wonder what would happen at different altitudes. It certainly would be a good project to put on the space station. This is cool!

Scientists Discover Surprise in Earth's Upper Atmosphere

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Mars' Magnetosphere:
MARS: MAGNETIC FIELD AND MAGNETOSPHERE


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Asteroid Belt Magnetic Anomalies:
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Jupiter's Magnetosphere:
Ganymede
Properties of Ganymede's magnetosphere inferred from improved three-dimensional MHD simulations
Wiki
Ganymede's magnetosphere makes a big impression on Jupiter's auroral lightshows

Io
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Saturn's Magnetosphere:
SATURN: MAGNETIC FIELD AND MAGNETOSPHERE



http://nasaimages.org/luna/servlet/detail/NVA2~1~1~2206~102356:Behold-Saturn-s-Magnetosphere!

New transient radiation belt discovered at Saturn

Science Centric (14 Sep 2009 00:02 GMT) - Scientists using the Cassini spacecraft's Magnetospheric Imaging instrument (MIMI) have detected a new, temporary radiation belt at Saturn, located around the orbit of its moon Dione at about 377 000 km from the centre of the planet. The discovery will be presented at the European Planetary Science Congress in Potsdam by Dr Elias Roussos on Monday 14 September... [full story]



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Uranus' Magnetosphere:
URANUS: MAGNETIC FIELD AND MAGNETOSPHERE


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Neptune's Magnetosphere:
NEPTUNE: MAGNETIC FIELD AND MAGNETOSPHERE


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Pluto,Charon Magnetosphere:
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Comets
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Ice Belts
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Magnetostatics
Biot–Savart



Where: = current [1]
is a vector, whose magnitude is the length of the differential element of the wire, and whose direction is the direction of conventional current [1]
B is the net magnetic field [1]
is the magnetic constant. (A confusion sometimes encountered is to think that μ0 is a physical constant that describes some physical property. This notion is not true: μ0 is a measurement-system constant introduced and defined as a result of international agreement) [2]
is the displacement unit vector in the direction pointing from the wire element towards the point at which the field is being computed. [1]
is the full displacement vector from the wire element to the point at which the field is being computed. [1]


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Maxwell's
I am reading A treatise on electricity and magnetism, Volume 1 By James Clerk Maxwell, Joseph John Thompson

Maxwell describes "The Three Fundamental Units".
They are:
Length[L]l
Time[T]t
Mass[M]m.
So the dimensions of mass at rest is m=l^3t^-2. This is inline with Newton's Law.

The Derived Units.
Velocity = [LT^-1]
Acceleration = [LT^-2]
Density = [ML^3]
Momentum [MLT^-1]
Force = [MLT^-2]
Work = [ML^2T^-2]
Energy = [ML^3T^-2]

These derived units are well defined by Maxwell and others.

Now Einstein comes along an changes this. Energy = [MC^2]. I don't know how or why he made this change. Nor does it make sense nor does it match the Derived Units.

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Faraday's
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Gauss' law
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Ampère's law
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Other Laws
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Coulomb's Law [1] [2]


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Interesting Videos


Interesting Papers
The pasta structure in the hadron-quark phase transition and the effects on magnetized compact stars
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