Tuesday, January 27, 2009

Speed of light is a variable

Citation http://www.rpi.edu/dept/phys/Dept2/APPhys1/optics/optics/node4.html
Cite DJ Wagner at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

The speed of light has a maximum velocity of 2.99792458 x 10^8 m/s in a vacuum.


The index of refraction of some common materials are given below.










































































materialnmaterialn
Vacuum1Crown Glass1.52
Air1.0003Salt1.54
Water1.33Asphalt1.635
Ethyl Alcohol1.36Heavy Flint Glass1.65
Fused Quartz1.4585Diamond2.42
Whale Oil1.460Lead2.6


Values of n come from the CRC Handbook
of Chemistry and Physics






v = c/n
Where
v = velocity of light through the medium
c = maximum speed of light in a vacuum
n = optical density or refractive index of media


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v(lead) = c/n(lead)= (299792458 m/s) /(2.6) = 115304791.538 m/s through lead.

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Dark Energy has a refractive index of ~<1. Though quite small Dark Energy still affects the speed, wavelength, frequency, and temperature of the photon-wave over great distances.

This is very important. I am beginning to think that the only constant is change.
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